Princípios da Agroecologia

Agricultura sustentável tem que considerar aspectos socioeconômicos e culturais dos grupos sociais implicados. Não basta proteger e melhorar o solo ou a produtividade agrícola se não resulta em melhorias nas condições de vida das pessoas envolvidas. Portanto, agricultura sustentável é um conceito que implica aspectos políticos e ideológicos que tem a ver com o conceito de cidadania e libertação dos esquemas de dominação impostos por setores de nossa própria sociedade e por interesses econômicos de grandes grupos, de modo que não se pode abordar o tema reduzindo outra vez as questões técnicas.

Francisco Roberto Caporal


"Muita gente pequena, em muitos lugares pequenos, fazendo coisas pequenas, mudarão a face da Terra". provérbio africano

Como os lobos mudam rios

Como se processa os animais que comemos

Rio Banabuiu


domingo, 17 de junho de 2012


The Nuclear Forest Recovery Zone
Mycoremediation of the Japanese Landscape After Radioactive Fallout

Gomphidius glutinosus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Boletales
Family: Gomphidiaceae
Genus: Gomphidius
Species: G. glutinosus
Binomial name
Gomphidius glutinosus
(Schaeff.) Fr.

Many people have written me and asked more or less the same question: “What would you
do to help heal the Japanese landscape around the failing nuclear reactors?”
The enormity and unprecedented nature of this combined natural and human-made
disaster will require a massive and completely novel approach to management and
remediation. And with this comes a never before seen opportunity for collaboration,
research and wisdom.
The nuclear fallout will make continued human habitation in close proximity to the
reactors untenable. The earthquake and tsunami created enormous debris fields near the
nuclear reactors. Since much of this debris is wood, and many fungi useful in
mycoremediation are wood decomposers and build the foundation of forest ecosystems, I
have the following suggestions:
1) Evacuate the region around the reactors.
2) Establish a high-level, diversified remediation team including foresters, mycologists,
nuclear and radiation experts, government officials, and citizens.
3) Establish a fenced off Nuclear Forest Recovery Zone.
4) Chip the wood debris from the destroyed buildings and trees and spread throughout
areas suffering from high levels of radioactive contamination.
5) Mulch the landscape with the chipped wood debris to a minimum depth of 12-24
6) Plant native deciduous and conifer trees, along with hyper-accumulating mycorrhizal
mushrooms, particularly Gomphidius glutinosus, Craterellus tubaeformis, and
Laccaria amethystina (all native to pines). G. glutinosus has been reported to absorb
– via the mycelium – and concentrate radioactive Cesium 137 more than 10,000-fold
over ambient background levels. Many other mycorrhizal mushroom species also
7) Wait until mushrooms form and then harvest them under Radioactive HAZMAT
8) Continuously remove the mushrooms, which have now concentrated the
radioactivity, particularly Cesium 137, to an incinerator. Burning the mushroom will
result in radioactive ash. This ash can be further refined and the resulting
concentrates vitrified (placed into glass) or stored using other state-of-the-art
storage technologies.

Gomphidius glutinosus hyper-accumulates radioactive Cesium 137 more than 10,000x.
By sampling other mushroom-forming fungi for their selective ability to hyper-accumulate
radioactivity, we can learn a great deal while helping the ecosystem recover. Not only will
some mushroom species hyper-accumulate radioactive compounds, but research has also
shown that some mycorrhizal fungi bind and sequester radioactive elements so they remain
immobilized for extended periods of time. Surprisingly, we learned from the Chernobyl
disaster some species of melanin-producing fungi thrive, feeding on concrete, within the
highly radioactive environment of the damaged containment vessel. At Chernobyl, some
fungi’s growth was stimulated by severe radiation, even when exposed to >1,000,000 rads !
The knowledge gained through this collaborative process would not only benefit the areas
affected by the current crisis, but would also help with preparedness and future
remediation responses.
How long would this remediation effort take? I have no clear idea but suggest this may
require at least decades, probably centuries. However, a forested national park could
emerge –The Nuclear Forest Recovery Zone – and eventually benefit future generations
with its many ecological and cultural attributes. I do not know of any other practical
remedy. I do know that we have an unprecedented opportunity to work together toward
solutions that make sense.
For references, see the selected list below and please consult my latest book, Mycelium
Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World (Ten Speed Press, Berkeley or Utilizing search engines of the scientific literature will also reveal more
corroborative references.
Paul Stamets
Selected Bibliography on Fungal Interactions with Radiation
Berreck, M. and K. Haselwandter, 2003. “Radiocesium Contamination of Wild-Growing Medicinal
Mushrooms in Ukraine” International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 5:61-86.
Biello, D., 2007. “Do Fungi Eat Radiation?” Science News, May 23.
Epik, O., and G. Yaprak. 2003. “The mushrooms as bioindicators of radiocesium in forest
ecosystem.” Proceedings of the Fifth General Conference of the Balkan Physical Union, Vrnjaãka
Banja, Serbia and Montenegro, August 25-29.
Fomina. M., J. M. Charnock, S. Hillier, R. Alvarez, F. Livens, and G. M. Gadd, 2008. “Role of fungi in
the biogeochemical fate of depleted uranium”. Current Biology, Volume 18, Issue 9, R375-R377,
Elsevier Ltd.
Ekaterina D, R. Bryan, X. Huang, T. Moadel, A. D. Schweitzer, P.Aisen, J. D. Nosanchuk, A.
Casadevall, 2007. “Ionizing Radiation Changes the Electronic Properties of Melanin and Enhances
the Growth of Melanized Fungi”. PLoS One.
Gadd, G.M., ed., 2001. Fungi in Bioremediation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Gadd, G.M., ed., 2006. Fungi in Biogeochemical Cycles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Singh, H., 2006. Mycoremediation. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.
Stamets, Paul, 2005. Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World, Ten Speed
Press, Berkeley, California.
Stijve, T. & M. Poretti, 1990. “Radioactivity in Mushrooms” Issue 28, vol 8, no. 3, pp. 5-9.
Mushroom, The Journal, Moscow, Idaho.

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A Campanha tem o objetivo de alertar a população sobre os perigos dos agrotóxicos, pressionar governos e propor um modelo de agricultura saudável para todas e todos, baseado na agroecologia.

Assine já, pelo banimento dos banidos! Entre no link abaixo.