Princípios da Agroecologia

Agricultura sustentável tem que considerar aspectos socioeconômicos e culturais dos grupos sociais implicados. Não basta proteger e melhorar o solo ou a produtividade agrícola se não resulta em melhorias nas condições de vida das pessoas envolvidas. Portanto, agricultura sustentável é um conceito que implica aspectos políticos e ideológicos que tem a ver com o conceito de cidadania e libertação dos esquemas de dominação impostos por setores de nossa própria sociedade e por interesses econômicos de grandes grupos, de modo que não se pode abordar o tema reduzindo outra vez as questões técnicas.

Francisco Roberto Caporal


"Muita gente pequena, em muitos lugares pequenos, fazendo coisas pequenas, mudarão a face da Terra". provérbio africano

Como os lobos mudam rios

Como se processa os animais que comemos

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segunda-feira, 27 de agosto de 2012

Plágio em Ciência...

...and still more plagiarism

This week, I attended the 12th International Paleolimnology Symposium 
held at Glasgow (UK). One of the sessions (S14) was entitled: 
"Palaeoecological reflections on biodiversity: challenges and new advances"
The keynote speaker of this session was Prof. R. T. Paterson,
from the Carleton University, Ontario, Canada, and the title of his talk was:
"Community structure dynamics and biodiversity across a continuum of past,
 present and future" (S14-KN). 
As the concept of time continuum in ecology has been fully addressed in 
a couple of my more recent publications (Rull, 2010; 2012), I was very 
interested in this talk. But what was my surprise when, in the first 
two slides, they appeared a couple of general sentences taken almost
 literally from the abstract of one one of my papers on the subject (Rull, 2010)
 without citation (the rest of the talk was full of citations to papers from where 
data and/or ideas were derived). The same sentences appear in the 
abstract of the talk, and I reproduce them followed by my own for comparison:

"...sedimentary records archive a time continuum through which species 
and communities flow as they evolve and undergo ecologic transformations. 
Although both ecologists and paleoecologists share a common goal 
of gaining a fuller understanding of biosphere processes,..." (Patterson, 2012).

"...past, present and future are not discrete units but a time continuum through
 which species and communities flow, change and evolve; and that ecology and 
palaeoecology are only different approaches with a common objective,
 which is the ecological understanding of the biosphere..."(Rull, 2010).
 By the way, this is also the main sub-header statement of this blog.

These ideas would be shared by a number of paleoecologists
 (especially after my 2010 and 2012 papers), but the form in which 
they are written they perfectly match with the Hames' (2007) 
definition of plagiarism ("...the taking and use other's ideas, writings 
and inventions, and passing them of as one's own, i.e. without giving 
credit to the originator"). It would be hard to convince someone that
 the author of the first paragraph has not read the paper quoted in 
the second. Moreover, the key message of Patterson's talk would 
have been the same with or without the reproduction of my sentences 
and ideas as an introduction to the subject. There was no any need for
 such a procedure, unless the author wanted to be recognized as the
 originator of them (which is not possible after my 2010 and 2012 papers).

I am still astonished and I don't know how to interpret this issue.
 Unfortunately, this is not the first time that I feel plagiated
 (see Plagiarism in the Lost World, among others) and 
I still don't understand the need for such practices, 
especially when coming from recognized scientists who don't 
need this to be acknowledged as such.

Hames, I. 2007. Peer review and manuscript management in scientific journlas.
 Blackwell, Oxford, 293 p.
Patterson, R. T. 2012. Community structure dynamics and biodiversity across a
 continuum of past, present and future. 
Abstracts of the 12th International Paleolimnology Symposium, 
Glasgow 21-26 August 2012, p. 171.
Rull, V. 2010. Ecology and paleoecology: two approaches and one objective.
 Open Ecology Journal, 3: 1-5. 
Rull, V. 2012. Community Ecology: diversity and dynamics over time.
 Community Ecology, 13: 102-116.

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